This program aims to design and synthesize biomimetic materials that replicate the hierarchical, complex nature of mineralized tissues (bone, dentin, and enamel). Recent research efforts have led to new mechanistic insights into calcium phosphate biomineralization. A revolutionary understanding of the pathways governing calcium phosphate nucleation and growth has taken root, resulting in what is described as “non-classical” mineralization. Fundamental to this new model is the importance of prenucleation clusters (stable ion clusters) and reactive amorphous phases in building structured and organized biominerals. This new physicochemical insight paired with extensive work probing the self-organization/mineral interactions of soluble proteins (e.g., amelogenin, dentin sialoprotein) and matrix proteins (e.g., collagen) are producing an improved understanding of biologically generated inorganic structures. This research opportunity will develop measurement methods to gain additional insights into biomineralization processes and/or capitalize on new knowledge to develop biomimetic materials with increasing levels of control and hierarchical structures.